DATA 606 - Statistics & Probability - Fall 2021

Intro to Data

Click here to open the slides (PDF).

R code created during meeting.

data(mtcars)
library(tidyverse)
## ── Attaching packages ─────────────────────────────────────── tidyverse 1.3.1 ──
## ✓ ggplot2 3.3.5     ✓ purrr   0.3.4
## ✓ tibble  3.1.4     ✓ dplyr   1.0.7
## ✓ tidyr   1.1.3     ✓ stringr 1.4.0
## ✓ readr   2.0.1     ✓ forcats 0.5.1
## ── Conflicts ────────────────────────────────────────── tidyverse_conflicts() ──
## x dplyr::filter() masks stats::filter()
## x dplyr::lag()    masks stats::lag()
cor.test(mtcars$wt, mtcars$mpg)
## 
##  Pearson's product-moment correlation
## 
## data:  mtcars$wt and mtcars$mpg
## t = -9.559, df = 30, p-value = 1.294e-10
## alternative hypothesis: true correlation is not equal to 0
## 95 percent confidence interval:
##  -0.9338264 -0.7440872
## sample estimates:
##        cor 
## -0.8676594
ggplot(mtcars, aes(x = wt, y = mpg)) + 
    geom_point() +
    geom_smooth(method = 'lm')
## `geom_smooth()` using formula 'y ~ x'

lm.out <- lm(mpg ~ wt + hp, data = mtcars)
summary(lm.out)
## 
## Call:
## lm(formula = mpg ~ wt + hp, data = mtcars)
## 
## Residuals:
##    Min     1Q Median     3Q    Max 
## -3.941 -1.600 -0.182  1.050  5.854 
## 
## Coefficients:
##             Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
## (Intercept) 37.22727    1.59879  23.285  < 2e-16 ***
## wt          -3.87783    0.63273  -6.129 1.12e-06 ***
## hp          -0.03177    0.00903  -3.519  0.00145 ** 
## ---
## Signif. codes:  0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
## 
## Residual standard error: 2.593 on 29 degrees of freedom
## Multiple R-squared:  0.8268, Adjusted R-squared:  0.8148 
## F-statistic: 69.21 on 2 and 29 DF,  p-value: 9.109e-12